Gar usefru n tura d win n zik, yella umaynut ?

Ur nessin akken iwata asefru n zik, wid n leqrun yezrin, acku ulac ifayluten (1) yuran. Iɛerquben (2) n yisefra n zik ay nla ass-a, wid n lqern wis XIX ur ugiten ara. Gar wammuden-a, nezmer ad nebder win n Hanoteau (1867) i d-yewwin abruy ɣef yifsiḥen i yellan, i yeddren di lqern wis XIX neɣ uqbel. Llan daɣen yimassen i d-yewwin abruyen ɣef Yusef Uqasi, ɣef Smaɛil Azikiw, … Maca, i d-nniɣ, d ibruyen kan. Ammud i d-iga M. At Mɛemmer (1980) ila deg-s wugur d ameqqran: seg tama igemmer-d isefra n yimedyazen n leqrun iɛeddan (daymi i as-isema {{ {Poèmes kabyles anciens} }}) ; deg wammud-a ihi, ad naf ismawen n yifsiḥen n Tmurt n Yizwawen, am Yusef Uqasi i yeddren gar lqern wis XVII d wis XVIII, am Sidi Qali (3) i yeddren uqbel Yusef Uqasi, ɣas akken Hanoteau yerra-t deg yifsiḥen n lqern wis XIX. Seg tama-nniḍen adlis n M. At Mɛemmer yeffeɣ-d deg lqern wis XX, deg 1980 i tikelt tamezwarut. Ugur ihi, d acu-t ? Ur neẓri amek i d-yewwi M. At Mɛemmer isefra n yifsiḥen iqdimen, n tallit n Yusef Uqasi, d amedya : d tagmert i ten-id-igemmer ɣur yimdanen, neɣ d imawlan-is i as-d-yeǧǧan ifayluten yuran? Ur neẓri. Maca llan wid i d-yeqqaren belli imawlan d Dda Lmulud uran kra n yisefra iqdimen i d-as-ǧǧan Dda Lmulud.

Nezmer ad d-nini ihi belli ur nessin ara tamedyezt n leqrun wis XVIII, wis XVII, atg. Ur nessin ara ula d ismawen n yifsiḥen n Tmurt n Leqbayel n tallit-nni, acku, i d-nniɣ, ulac ifayluten yuran i d-yeqqimen. Yeqqim-d yisem n umussnaw Buɛemran akked kra n tmenniwin-ines, maca ur neḥsi ara anta tallit ideg yedder.

Deg lqern wis XIX, d anemgal, llan kra n yifayluten yuran, ulamma mačči aṭas aṭas. Acimi ? Acku deg lawan-nni, tamurt n Fransa tuɣ tamurt-nneɣ teɣzi tehri, dɣa llan gar-asen, yifransisen, ama d iɛsekriwen, ama d wiyaḍ, i d-igemmren isefra n yifsiḥen iqbayliyen. Am waken i d-nniɣ, yella gar-asen Hanoteau (1867), Boulifa (1904) i d-yewwin ɣef yisefra n Si Muḥend. Syinna kkren-d Yiqbayliyen i d-igemmren isefra n yifsiḥen akked tefsiḥin n Tmurt, gar-asen Jean-El Mouhoub Amrouche (1937), Feraoun (1960), Malek Ouari, Mammeri (1980), Taseɛdit Yacine, Yusef Nacib, Kamal Bouamara, atg. Imeskaren-a jemɛen-d ayen i d-yeqqimen, ayen iwumi weɛɛan deg yisefra n Tmurt n tallit yellan gar lqern wis XIX akked wis XX.

Deg wammuden-a, nezmer ad nekkes kra n yilugan iɣef yebna usefru n Tmurt n Leqbayel. S umata, neẓra ɣef wacu i d-ttawin, nessen isental imeqqran, maca nessen daɣen ilugan yerzan lebni n usefru. Imi mačči d adeg ideg nezmer ad d-nessegzi s telqey ilugan-a, dɣa ad neɛreḍ ad d-nefk kra n yiwellihen kan.

{{1.}} Asefru n Leqbayel yeqqen ɣer ccna : s umata (4), asefru d uḥiḥa (ccna) ttwarzen wa ɣer wa. Neẓra acu n ufus (5) i yetturar uḥiḥa deg tmetti taqbaylit n zik, rnu d tin n wass-a kifkif. Lxalat cennunt deg waṭas n tegnatin : deg{ urar n lxalat} (deg tmeɣriwin), deg tala, mi ara teẓẓad tasirt, mi ara tesǧellib mmi-s (yelli-s), mi ara t-tezzuzun akken ad yeṭṭes, atg. Irgazen daɣen cennun deg leswaq am yimeddaḥen, deg tmeɣriwin am yiḍebbalen neɣ znuzun lḥenni, cennun deg lexlawi (am yimeksawen) ; ttcewwiqen deg tmesgida ɣef ddin, mi ara yili umettan ….

Daymi i d-yettban ulac asefru war ccna/acewweq, ulac ccna war asefru. Dɣa yettban-d ccna/aḥiḥa/acewweq d allal, d ttawil swayes ileḥḥu usefru gar yimdanen, swayes yettidir, swayes tasuta tettakk-it i tayeḍ.

{{2.}} Asefru n leqrun-a (wis XIX akked wid XX alamma d 1950/60) ur ibeddel ara talɣa. Talɣa n usefru, ɣas akken wa ɣezzif, wa wezzil, tezga d tinna.
S umata llant snat n talwiwin n usefru awezzlan :

{{a/ amesḍis (6): d asefru ideg llan 6 n yifyar (2×3) :
md.}}

Yiwen d bu-zegza neɛqel-it

Seg yeɣẓer i d-ixutel

Ma yella d uḥdiq neffer-it

Abrid wayeḍ ad iqatel

Ma yella d ungif neml-it

Ad fell-as sewwbeɣ lmaqel.

Y. Uqasi

{{b/ ametẓa (7): d asefru ideg llan 9 n yifyar (3×3).
md.}}

Asmi i lliɣ d acawrar

Zzin-iw yufrar

Ixeddem-d baba fell-i

Nekseb tiɣezza deg Camlal

Nerna idurar

Ɛuddeɣ d ssaba irkelli

Tura mi senndeɣ s uffal

ZZher-iw imal

A ḥesra ɣef zik-nni !

Si Muḥend

{{GRET TAMAWT (1):}}

Deg a), ad naf :
–7 n tunṭiqin (8) deg yal afyir;
–ifyar msaḍan gar-asen, meḥsub : ttfakkan s tmeɣrut (9).

Deg b), azd naf :
–Afyir 1 d wis 3 n yal taseddart lan 7 n tunṭinqin, ma d wis 2 ila 5 n tunṭiqin kan
–Tameɣrut : tin n ufyir 1 d wis 2 n yal taseddart msadant; afyir wis 3 n yal taseddart d yiwet.

{{GRET TAMAWT (2):}}

Ma yella ɣezzif usefru (tizlit), ad naf asuddes gar yimesḍisen akked yimetẓaten.

{{Asefru/taɣect n 195/60 ar ass-a}}

ɣas akken yella umaynut akked usnulfu, deg wayen yerzan isental akked amḍan n tunṭiqin deg ufyir (10), ɣer kra n yicennayen yecban Matoub, aït Menguellet d wiyaḍ, ɣer kra n yimedyazen, am Ben Mohamed, Lhacène Ziani, … maca tameɣrut tezga tella.

D tidet nezmer ad naf ɣur kra n yicennayen am Ferḥat Imaziɣen Imula asefru ur nebni ara ɣef tmeɣrut akked umḍan n tunṭiqin, am tezlit-nni {{“ɣur-i yiwen n umdakkel”}} neɣ {{“Nnif d lḥerma”}} ; nezmer daɣen ad naf ɣur kra n yimedyazen n wass-a, am Mexkuf Buɣareb ssenf n usefru-ya iwumi ara nsemmi {{“afyir ilelli”}}, maca …ulac aṭas.

{{D acu i d”afyir/asefru ilelli” ?}}

D win ur nebni ara wala ɣef yiwen n umḍan n tunṭiqin neɣ sin, wala ɣef tmeɣrut. Am wakken i yella deg yidelsan-nniḍen, nezmer ad d-neg asefru wa ma nesseqdec sin n yilugan-a iqburen : yiwen n umḍan n tunṭiqin akked tmeɣrut ɣer taggara n yifyar.

……………………………………………………

(1) afaylu (yuran): document (écrit).

(2) aɛerqub (n yisefra) : ammud (n yisefra).

(3) mačči “Qala” : isem n tidet : Sidi Qali …Isem « Qala » yella ar ass-a.

(4) Llan yifsiḥen n zik ur necni ara isefra-nsen, am Si Muḥend U Mḥend.

(5) afus : s unamek n “tawuri” (rôle/fonction).

(6) amesḍis : asefru bu sḍis n yifyar (sizain).

(7) ametẓa : asefru bu tẓa (9) n yifyar.

(8) tunṭiqt : syllabe.

(9) amḍan n tunṭiqin : nombre de syllabes.

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  1. Zik timetti taqbaylit tetteddu s tikti n warraw-is, s wawal i d-ttaffen tifrat i temsal yettilin,qeddcen akk i ubaγur n wegdud, tuddsa taqbaylit, tahregt isuḍaf-is, tettwajbed-d deg wansayen, mačči deg tesnakta neγ di ddin i d-wwin wid i d-ikeccmen tamurt, ula d fransa teεreḍ a ten-beddel, teḍḥa-d ur tezmir ara, maca wigi, i γ-iḥekkmen di 62 γar da, ḥekmen i wakken ad ssenselmen ad ssεerben, d wigini ig fkan tiyita tameqqrant i tutlayt d wansayen n teqbaylit, ssawḍen armi rran kra n leqbayel, kerhen ula d iman-nsen.

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  2. {{Azul.
    Netta dɣa mi ara nsuk tamuɣli ɣer tsekla n yigduden nniḍen , ad naf tamedyezt i ttarun ur t-yuriz ara uɣanib neɣ talɣa taqburt alamma ttwakksen-as iḥulfan yettilin lemmer d lebɣi di tmedyaz , ttaǧǧan-as-d kan tameɣrut d wawalen . Netta, dɣa , tamedyezt tarart tettak nnuba i wawal ad d-yenṭeq , ad d-yesrugmet ma ira i yiman-is. Ma nniɣ-d turda-w dagi , ad d-inuiɣ d akken , tamedyezt tarart , neɣ afit ilelli , d netta ara yefken iferrawen i tutlayt ad d-teffeɣ si lqefs ideg t-yurez usekkud aqbur .
    Mexluf BUƔAREB}}

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    1. bɣiɣ kan ad s-iniɣ i mass Bouamara tanmirt ɣef teṣleṭ-a, aṭṭas i d-lemdeɣ seg-s.
      Bɣiɣ d aɣen ad ẓreɣ amek ara d-nini isem n tigawt n wemyag gmer,

      nekni gmer : agmar mačči tagmert acku tagmart ɣerneɣ d taserdunt

      Tanmirt s ɣur Taninna

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        1. azul, tura taqbaylit ssγaren-tt deg γerbazen, u llan daγen wid i ssexdamen allaγ nsen, am Kamal, d nutni ara yerren awalen ad ṭṭfen imukan nsen deg tutlayt, d nutni daγen ara d-yessegzun anamek nsen, »Agemmer » deg temnaṭ nneγ, amedya: tiyemmatin nneγ zik, ttwelihent imeẓyanen ad qqimen, d yemγaren ad sslen imi ttmeslayen, i wakken a d-gemmren tamussni ar γur sen, anamek wis-sin: ad ruḥeγ a lexla a d-gemmreγ abezenṭar, amerγenis, aγeddu, ijeğğigen n texsayt, s yis-sen ad geγ tasfurut neγ tabazint, neqqar daγen tagmert n enbi, tagi d talγemt, ma di lquḍ uzemmur, ur neqqar ara a d-gemmreγ azemmur, neqqar: acraw, azway, alqaḍ, wid ur n-sεi yara azemmur, ttezzin ttḥawacen-d azemmur deg tzemmrin leqden yakan imawlan nsent.

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          1. Azul a Muhend
            Ghurek lhaq; taqvaylit, d imusnawen n tuslayth negh ar issersen {les règles} n tira ines.
            Ad ughalegh ghur wawal n wugmar; nikhthid d inigi n wakken qqaren deg yiwet n temnat di tmurth taqvaylit. Acraw, azway, alqaḍ, anect a akw neghar as agmar uzemmur. Agmar ghurnegh, d ayen imi gharen s tefransist {récolte}

          2. azul fell ak a Yiwen, awal-a  » tagmart, agmar neγ tagmert, atan γur wen azref kečč d Kamal, acku netta yefka-t-id γaf umedyaz Yusef Uqasi i d-igemmren, neγ i d-yewwin, ar imedyazen nniḍen, maca netta yenna-d (tagmert) kečč γaf uzemmur, tenniḍ-d( gmer neγ agmar) nekk γaf imeẓyanen d imeqranen, akk d telγemt, nniγ-d ( gmer neγ agmar)maca deg umyag mi ara yefti: gemmreγ, tgemmreḍ, igemmer, tgemmer, ngemmer, tgemmrem, tgemmremt, gemmren, gemmrent. Ma d Taninna γaf tserdunt, tenna-d ar γur sen, qqaren (tagmert) i tserdunt, ccukkeγ di temnaṭ-is qqaren daγen agmar i la cueillette ivejγiḍen, ahat d tuccḍa i yellan deg tira n Kamal, γaf wakken gziγ nekk, tagmert=jument, agmar=la cueillette, awal-a ihi, atan di ccekk, nettraju a d-fken anamek-is imussnawen.

          3. awal-a teqqar-it-id deg yiwet n tezlit-is Ḥ’nifa: (lxalat meggrent irden, nekk la gemmreγ tiẓudla) d agi tra a d-tini llant lxalat ur ixuss wara, nettat d aḥettet kan i d-tettḥettit tiram-is  » une survie »

  3. tanemmirt a kamal γef wayen akk i txedmeḍ γef tmaziγt. awah ad ilin aṭas am kečč .
    nekk deg leεmer-iw ur lmideγ ilugan n tmedyazt deg uγerbaz ḥala ayen γriγ deg wayen
    i d-tettaruḍ. xas akken ur iyi-tettunefk ara tegnit akken ad lemdeγ tamaziγt deg tseddawit
    acku ayen i d-gemreγ deg-s akk lemdeγ-t seg wayen i tettarum s yimusnawen agi nneγ
    (autodidactique) . ssarameγ akk imaziγen neγ xersum iqbayliyen ad awen rren tajmilt tameqqrant
    ara awen-yefken afud d tebγest i ukemmel n usirem n tmetti d uγref amaziγ.
    tanemmirt aṭas aṭas neγ ḥawla ḥawla

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  4. Ar γer-neγ D tizizwa d iferṭeṭṭa ig gemmren …..Imdanen leqḍen azemmur, ccerwen aγeddu …atg.
    Tanemmirt γef weḍris agi id yemeslayen γef usefru aqbayli gar iḍeli d wass-a ….Tanemmirt tameqqrant i Kamel Bouamara γef ccγel leqdic-is yal ass akken tutlayt att idir.

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