Tasuqqilt n umagrad : « AMAZIΓ » n Salem Chaker

Tasuqqilt n umagrad : « AMAZIΓ » n Salem Chaker

Tasuqqilt n umagrad : AMAZIΓ, « (le/un) Berbère » Amaru : Salem CHAKER Adlis : [Encyclopédie berbère IV, 1987, p 562-568.] Tasuqqilt sɣur : R. AWAL

I) Ayen i d-yeqqimen ass-a ɣef wawal AMAZIΓ

Awal « Amaziɣ » yettwaseqdec sɣur waṭas n yigrawen imettiyen i yettmeslayen ass-a tutlayt n tmaziɣt. Sexdamen-t iwakken ad semmin i yiman-nsen s yisem-a yakan.

Anita timnaḍin anda i yesseqdacen awal-a tura ?

1. Deg wakal n Tmurt n Lmerruk

Amur ameqran n yimezdaɣ n Tmurt-a ttsemmin i yiman-nsen Imaziɣen (naɣ akken i sen-qqaren s taɛrabt Braber), tameslayt-nsen qqaren-as tamaziɣt (naɣ tamazixt).

Γur Yicelḥiyen, awal-a d aqbur ; sexdamen-t deg tsekla-nsen. Seqdacen-t daɣen iwakken a d-yemmal anamek n « Amaziɣ acebḥan (amellal) » naɣ « Amaziɣ n tidet ». S wawal-a i semgaraden iman-nsen ɣef yimdanen-nniḍen iwimi qqaren « Iberkanen », wi-yi llan zedɣen deg wenẓul n Lmerruk, d aklan. Irifiyen seqdacen daɣen awal-a ugar n wawalen-nniḍen yettwassnen arifi / tarifit.

Deg sin n yegrawen-a (Irifiyen d Yicelḥiyen), awal « tamaziɣt » sexdamen-t akken ad d-mmalen yis-s tutlayt-nsen. Γur Yirifiyen, awal « tamaziɣt » yettwassen ugar n wawal « tarifit » (tarifit d awal amaynut i d-yekkan seg taɛrabt). Icelḥiyen s timmad-nsen semman i tmeslayt-nsen n tmedyazt « awal amaziɣ » (Paulette Galand-Pernet, 1969, 1972). Tanfalit-a yebder-itt-id yiwen n umaru iwimi qqaren Jean-Léon l’Africain (1956), yenna-d tettwaseqdec seg tmiḍi tis-XVI.

Deg Lmerruk ihi, Amaziɣ / tamaziɣt yemmal-d tutlayt naɣ ayen yerzan tutlayt. D ayen iwimi fkan azal d ameqqran nezzeh.

2. Deg umaḍal n Yitergiyen

Gar wawalen i nezmer a naf ɣur Yitergiyen, llan :

— Amaheɣ / Imuhaɣ, tamaheq, qqaren-t deg Uhaggar akk d Ajjer. Wi-yi asekkil /z/, i nessusruy nekni, yettuɣal d /h/ ɣur-sen;

— Amajeɣ / Imajɣen d tamajeq, awalen-a qqaren-ten deg temnaḍin i d-yezgan gar Nijer d Mali : Aïr, Iwllemmden, Kel-Geres, atg. Γur-sen asekkil /z/ susruyen-t d /j/ ;

— Amaceɣ / Imucaɣ d tamaceq, qqaren-t deg udrar n Ifuɣas (deg Mali). Γur-sen /z/ yettwasusruy /c/.

Γur Yitergiyen n tama u ugafa (Ahaggar/Ajjer), awal Amaheɣ ttsemmin-t i kra n umdan i izedɣen deg tmetti-nsen (akken yebɣu yili : d agellil naɣ d win yeṛwan). Ma ɣur Yitergiyen n tama n wadda (talemmast gar Nijer d Mali), awal Amajeɣ yemmal-d imdanen yeṛwan, wid ur nelluẓ ara ; d imsukal.

Itergiyen akken ma llan qqaren-asen Kel-tamajeq, naɣ « imdanen (n tutlayt) tamajeq ».

3. Kra n temnaḍin-nniḍen

Am ɣur Yicelḥiyen naɣ ɣur Yirifiyen, amaziɣ / tamaziɣt yettwassen yerna yettwaseqdac deg kra n temnaḍin-nniḍen :

— Deg Tunes ;

— Deg Libya : adrar n Neffusa d Γadames.

— Deg unẓul n Wehran : gar Ɛin-Sefra d Beccar [Figig, Busemɣun,…].

Awal-a yettwassen daɣen deg Tawat, Tidikelt, Gurara, deg Γat d Ǧanat. Anamek i s-ttaken i wawal-a : « aselmad », « Illu », …

Berra i temnaḍin-a (i d-nebder seg tazwara), awal « Amaziɣ » ur yettwassen ara, ama deg yidles naɣ deg wansayen n yimezdaɣ i yettmeslayen s tmaziɣt. Aya yerza tamurt n Leqbayel, Imẓabiyen d Yicawiyen (adrar n Wawras).

II) Deg Teglest [1]

Amaziɣ d awal yellan seg Teglest. Imura (les écrivains) igrigiyen d yilatiniyen fkan-as aṭas n talɣiwin, nnan-d d isem n yimezdaɣ i izedɣen Taferka-Ugafa. Talɣa n wawal-a temgarad yal yiwet ɣef tayeḍ, temgared daɣen deg tallit ɣer tayeḍ, maca talɣiwin-nni akken ma llant ttakent anzi ɣer talɣa tamezwarut n wawal « amaziɣ » ; nezmer ad naf :

Maxyes ɣur Hérodote (d agrigi) ;

Mazyes ɣur Hécatée (d agrigi) ;

Mazaces, Mazices, Mazikes, Mazax, Mazazaces… ɣur imura ilatiniyen.

Yiwen n umaru iwimi qqaren Flavius Cresconius Corippus (550 seld-Ɛisa) yesseqdec talɣa « Mazax » i wakken a d-yemmeslay ɣef yimezdaɣ n Tferka-Ugafa akken ma llan [G. Camps 1961 : 27-28].

Yiwet n taluft daɣen i yessewhamen, awal Mazik / Maziɣ n Teglest, qqaren-t ula deg temnaḍin anida ur ssinen ara awal Amaziɣ tura, ladɣa deg Lazzayer talemmast d tin n utaram. Timnaḍin-a ttwaɛerrbent nezzeh, armi tameslayt-nsen truḥ, i d-yeqqimen ala kra n yimezdaɣ i tt-yettmeslayen.

Taggara, ad d-nini (A)maziɣ yella seg Teglest, ttsemmin-t i win i d-ilulen [Desanges 1962, 63]. Mazal ar ass-a yeqqim-d d isem n twacult (ladɣa deg Tunes).

III) Deg Tallit talemmast [2]

Γur yimura i yuran s taɛrabt deg Tallit talemmast, awal (A)maziɣ urǧin yettunefk-as unamek n diri. Ibn Xeldun, deg udlis-is Amezruy n Yimaziɣen [adl. 1 : 167-185], yemmeslay-d s telqey ɣef yiẓuran n Yimaziɣen, yenna-d : « Amenzu-nsen (n Yimaziɣen) qqaren-as Maziɣ. » (sb. 185)

Akka ihi, aṭas n yimura aɛraben yuran deg tallit-nni ɣef Yimaziɣen i d-yennan ɣef wakken imezdaɣ imaziɣen nnan-asen-d amenzu-nsen qqaren-as Maziɣ.

Ayen nezmer ad d-nini deg waya, Amaziɣ d awal yettwassnen mliḥ deg Tallit talemmast, qqaren-t i wamur ameqqran n yimezdaɣ imaziɣen.

Tagrayt

Awal « Amaziɣ » yuɣ merra timnaḍin n Tferka-Ugafa, iwakken ad d-yesken isem n yimezdaɣ d tutlayt-nsen. Γef wakka, deg tallit n wass-a, awalen-a Amaziɣ / Imaziɣen / tamaziɣt mmalen-d Imaziɣen d tutlayt-nsen ; aya yerza timnaḍin yettmeslayen s tmaziɣt akken ma llant, ula d tidak ur nessin awalen-a deg yĭdles-nsent (Leqbayel, Icawiyen,…). D tamurt n Leqbayel i yessaɣen awal-a, fkan-as udem atrar seg yiseggasen n 1945-1950. Aya deg tallit-nni n umnekcam afransis ; allalen i yesxedmen d tizlatin (md. Kker a mmi-s umaziɣ). Seg temrawt n yiseggasen-a ineggura, yuɣal wawal « Amaziɣ » iressa iman-is akken iwata ; imezdaɣ n Tferka-Ugafa akken ma llan ssawalen i yiman-nsen Imaziɣen.

deg yiseggasen-a ineggura, aṭas n Yismazaɣen (Berbérisants), ladɣa wid n Lmerruk, ɛerḍen ad seddun awal Amaziɣ (Imaziɣen), ladɣa deg tira n tefransist. Acku s tutlayin tiberraniyin, am tefransist, qqaren-aɣ les berbères, d awal i d-yekkan seg tlatinit Barbares. Awal-a yesɛa anamek n diri yerna yecmet, yettcemmit aqader n lḥerma d yiseɣ n Yimaziɣen.

MW. :

[1] tallit-a tebda seg 3200 send-Ɛisa (tallit n tira) armi d 476 seld-Ɛisa (aɣelluy n umenkud arumani n utaram sɣur Iwendalen).

[2] tallit-a tebda seg useggas 476 seld-Ɛisa armi d 1453/1492 seld-Ɛisa

 

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